What is food poisoning?
Food poisoning is an acute gastroenteritis caused by indigestion of food or drink contaminated with either living bacteria or their toxin or inorganic chemical substance and poisons derived plants and animal. This is foodborne illness , its most common symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea.
Types of food poisoning:-
Bacterial food poisoning caused by the indigestion of food contaminated by living bacteria or their toxin. Bacteria is most common cause of food poisoning. Bacteria that involve food poisoning are –
- Listeria monocytogenes
- Clostridium botulinum
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Vibrio vulnificus
Non bacterial food poisoning caused by chemical such as arsenic ,cadmium , mercury, fertilizer , pesticides, etc.
Symptoms of food poisoning
Food poisoning symptoms get detected easily , but symptoms vary with source of infection . common symptoms of food poisoning includes
loss of appetite
Warning symptoms when you should consult with doctors
- Frequent episodes of vomiting and inability to keep liquids down
- Bloody vomit or stools
- Diarrhea for more than three days
- Extreme pain or severe abdominal cramping
- An oral temperature higher than 100.4 F (38 C)
- Signs or symptoms of dehydration — excessive thirst, dry mouth, little or no urination, severe weakness, dizziness, or lightheadedness
- Neurological symptoms such as blurry vision, muscle weakness and tingling in the arms
Prevention and control of food poisoning
1) Food sanitation
Meat inspection – The meat of various animal that is consumed by human being must be inspected carefully and should be free from infection .
Food handlers – those food handlers who are suffering from infected wound boils , diarrhea , dysentery, throat infection etc should be excluded from food handling .
Food handling technique – the handling of ready to eat foods with bare hands should be reduced to minimum time between preparation and consumption of food should be kept short. pasteurize the milk product and eggs. Most food poisoning organism are killed at 60 degree temp.
2) sanitary improvement
sanitization of all work surface utensil and instrument must be insured free from rats , mice , flues and dust .
3) health education
food handlers should be educated in matter of clean habits and personal hygiene .
Differential diagnosis of cholera and food poisoning
Individuals who are at risk
Whether you become ill after eating contaminated food depends on the organism, the amount of exposure, your age and your health. High-risk groups include:
- Older adults. As you get older, your immune system may not respond as quickly and as effectively to infectious organisms as when you were younger.
- Pregnant women. During pregnancy, changes in metabolism and circulation may increase the risk of food poisoning. Your reaction may be more severe during pregnancy. Rarely, your baby may get sick, too.
- Infants and young children. Their immune systems haven’t fully developed.
- People with chronic disease. Having a chronic condition — such as diabetes, liver disease or AIDS — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response.